A former artilleryman, Donald Sensing makes his opinion known. The short version: Probably a 152mm or 155mm shell (not a training round), but of neither US nor Soviet/Russian origin. Go read to see why.
Someone in the comments notes that the photo might be flipped horizontally. I had tried that, but I can’t tell. He notes the boy’s shirt, but neither he nor I know for sure whether it means anything. If it is flipped, it might mean that it’s a Soviet/Russian shell due to the rifling grooves.
I guess I’m not really convinced by those who think the pic is photoshopped.
Coming as it does from Getty Images, it could be a picture of just about anything from just about anywhere. That doesn’t change the fact that the NYT said it was something that it obviously wasn’t. That doesn’t make them part of a big conspiracy. Just either liars or idiots. Or lying idiots.